Harvard Plagiarism Archive

"[T]he problem of writers . . . passing off the work of others as their own . . . [is] a phenomenon of some significance."
PROFESSOR LAURENCE TRIBE, e-mail to Dean Lawrence Velvel, 9/13/2004

"'I . . . delegated too much responsibility to others . . .,' [Prof. Charles Ogletree] said. 'I was negligent
in not overseeing more carefully the final product that carries my name.' * * * Ogletree told The Crimson that
he had not read the passage of Balkin’s book that appears in his own work. An assistant inserted the material
into a manuscript . . . . But Ogletree said he was closely involved in most of the drafting of the book . . . ."

STEVEN MARKS, "Ogletree Faces Discipline for Copying Text," The Harvard Crimson, 9/13/2004

"'Ronald Klain . . . then only a first-year student at Harvard law . . . spent most of his time with
Tribe working on Tribe's [1985] book God Save This Honorable Court,'" the Legal Times added in 1993.
* * * 'Many of Klain's friends and former colleagues say that he wrote large sections of the book . . . .'"

JOSEPH BOTTUM, "The Big Mahatma," The Weekly Standard, 10/4/2004

"[A]fter several plagiarism scandals broke over distinguished faculty members at Harvard's law school, including
Laurence Tribe,a group of students there set up a blog, Harvard Plagiarism Archive, to follow the University's
handling of the problem. They believe that the University, President Summers, and Dean Elena Kagan
essentially white-washed the scandal and are demanding further action.

PROF. RALPH LUKER, History News Network's "Cliopatria" blog,4/26/2005

“The Tribe and Ogletree matters have catalyzed bitter complaints from Harvard students that the university
employs a double standard. . . . The students have every right to be incensed over this gross double standard.
They in fact ought to raise hell peacefully about it: a constant barrage of letters, emails, statements . . . .”

DEAN LAWRENCE VELVEL, "Velvel on National Affairs" blog, 4/28/2005

"If you want to keep track of this story, I recommend the new Harvard Plagiarism Archive. . . . [I]t's pretty thorough."
TIMOTHY NOAH, Slate's "Chatterbox" blog,9/28/2004

"[Y]ou have done a wonderful service to all by operating the AuthorSkeptics website . . . a fine public service."
DEAN LAWRENCE VELVEL, author of "Velvel on National Affairs," e-mail to AuthorSkeptics, 4/19/2005

Thursday, May 05, 2005

E-mail from Mark Halpern on Judge Posner's views about plagiarism

We received an e-mail from Mark Halpern commenting on Judge Posner's views about plagiarism, about which we recently posted here.

Not, not that Mark Halpern, or Mark Helprin, or Marc Halperin. This Mark Halpern.

In a rather detailed essay, Mr. Halpern has previously criticized Judge Posner's views about plagiarism. He suggested we reprint his essay. We are doing that, although we disagree with some of Mr. Halpern's specific analysis (though obviously taking a dim view of plagiarism generally). In particular, we are unsure whether in his essay he accurately summarizes Judge Posner's overall analysis of plagiarism. We hope readers will comment on any points of interest.

As Mr. Halpern mentions, Judge Posner declined to respond to his essay, citing its "intemperate" character. We agree the essay was intemperate, though not outrageously so, except perhaps for the final paragraph in which Mr. Halpern reveals the secret of his effectiveness as an advocate. (We've probably done something similar ourselves, but if one really thinks one has totally nailed an issue and eviscerated one's opponent, one should try to let the analysis speak for itself and not go over the top and announce one's immortal victory, which may cause enough unease among readers that the credibility of the preceding analysis may suffer.)

At any rate, we think the essay contains enough useful nuggets it is worth reading for those who are closely following the issues discussed on this blog.

Here, then, is the e-mail from Mr. Halpern, and the copy of the essay as set forth in his e-mail (we were unable to locate a copy on the web):

From: [e-mail address omitted]
Sent: Tuesday, May 3, 2005
To: AuthorSkeptics@hotmail.com
Subject: Serious criticism of Judge Posner's position on plagiarism

Dear Skeptics,

In the essay reproduced below, first published in The Vocabula Review (http://www.vocabula.com) for June 2003, I offered what I believe is the only serious criticism of Posner's position on plagiarism, as presented in his Atlantic and Newsday essays.

Posner paid me the left-handed compliment of refusing to comment on my criticism, when offered the opportunity by the editor of TVR, saying that he would not respond to such an intemperate attack. If you know Posner, you know that nothing would stop him from replying to criticism if he had anything plausible to say.

I invite you to reprint my essay on your site, or to give your readers a link to it. I think it important to expose Posner's confused and permissive position on plagiarism; at the very least, your readers should be given the opportunity to see it criticized.

Yours sincerely,
Mark Halpern


June 2003, Vol. 5, No. 6


“O, What a Noble Mind is here O’erthrown: Posner on Plagiarism”

"The Critical Reader" is devoted to analyzing recently published writings that are egregiously illogical, illiterate, or otherwise in need of skewering. The emphasis in these analyses will be on misuse of language, in particular tendentious diction or other corruptions of English. I will be particularly concerned to point out any political motivation behind such corruption, and the effect such corruption has even on those not sharing that motivation.

Just a few days ago I finished reading, or rather browsing in, Richard A. Posner's Public Intellectuals, and came away with respect for his analytical skills and his wide reading. But since then I've read two essays of his, one titled "On Plagiarism," the other "The Truth About Plagiarism" (apparently he was not as much concerned with the truth in the earlier piece), and have come away doubting not merely his analytical skills, but his sobriety, perhaps even his rationality. The first of these was published in The Atlantic Monthly for April 2002, the second in Newsday for May 30, 2003. The two pieces are the same in substance, and I will treat them as if they were one, except that direct quotations will be marked A (for Atlantic) or N (for Newsday) to help anyone who wants to check their accuracy.

"The Truth About Plagiarism" is subtitled, undoubtedly by a Newsday editor, "It's usually a minor offense and can have social value." I assumed before reading the piece that the subtitle was the usual dollop of hype that editors apply to every piece that passes across their desk in an effort to get readers hooked, but in this case the subtitle is a fair one. Posner is engaged in trivializing the offense of plagiarism, which he does by ignoring its accepted meaning, and he does suggest that some plagiarism is socially beneficial. But what he is mostly engaged in is muddying the waters of discourse.

Here are his arguments, in each case followed by my comments.

Posner (A): We must distinguish in the first place between a plagiarist and a copyright infringer. They are both copycats, but the latter is trying to appropriate revenues generated by property that belongs to someone else....

Comment: I know of no one who needs to have the difference between plagiarism and copyright infringement expounded, but if there is any such person, he will be really confused by this misinformation. Copyright infringement is the use of copyrighted material without the permission of the owner; it need not (and usually does not) involve the pretence that the material so misused is the work of the infringer, nor need it involve the misappropriation of revenue.

Posner (A): "Plagiarism," in the broadest sense of this ambiguous term, is simply unacknowledged copying.

Comment: There is nothing in the slightest ambiguous about plagiarism, nor does it have broader and narrower senses; it means unacknowledged copying.

Posner (A): [paraphrase by me, since the original passage is too long] Shakespeare, in the famous description of Cleopatra that he puts into the mouth of Enobarbus, is simply copying, almost verbatim, a passage from North's translation of Plutarch's life of Mark Antony. In The Waste Land, T. S. Eliot in turn "stole" that passage from Shakespeare, and in West Side Story, Leonard Bernstein copied the plot of Romeo and Juliet. [verbatim quotation resumes at this point.] If these are examples of plagiarism, then we want more plagiarism. They show that not all unacknowledged copying is "plagiarism" in the pejorative sense. Although there is no formal acknowledgement of copying in my examples, neither is there any likelihood of deception. And the copier has added value to the original -- this is not slavish copying.

Comment: Yes, if these were examples of plagiarism, we would want more of it. And if my grandmother had wheels, she would be a trolleycar. As Posner acknowledges in both papers, none of his examples consists of simple copying, and all of them except the Shakespearian adaptation of North's passage do not merely permit, but require, their audiences to understand the derivation of the material they adapt. (The Shakespearian example differs merely in that is does not require the audience to recognize it as an adaptation of earlier material.) So even in Posner's own "broadest sense," none are examples of plagiarism.

Posner's confusion here is hair-raising. In the antepenultimate sentence of the last-quoted passage, he says that these are examples of unacknowledged copying; in the next, he points out that no formal acknowledgments are necessary because everyone understands, and is expected to understand, the relation of these examples to their several originals. Then he implies that plagiarism has some nonpejorative sense -- what sense is that?

Posner (N): Plagiarism ... unlike real theft ... is not a crime. If a thief steals your car, you are out the market value of the car; but if a writer copies material from a book you wrote, you don't have to replace the book. ... The real victim of [the plagiarist's] fraud is not the person whose work he copies, but those of his competitors who scruple to enhance their own reputations by such means.

Comment: If a plagiarist publishes something of mine as his own, he may be stealing from me something far more valuable than a car. If I was the first to write "E = mc2," and you publish it as yours, you may have stolen the Nobel Prize from me. If I was the first to say "Hypocrisy is the tribute vice pays to virtue," and you publish it as yours, you may have stolen from me a reputation as a wit or philosopher. But even if the words you steal from me are far less valuable than these examples, still you are both depriving me of the credit earned by those words (they do earn credit, otherwise you would hardly trouble to steal them), and enhancing your own reputation at my expense. You are also misleading your readers, some of whom may go on to utter statements or perform acts of their own on the basis of the misunderstanding you have caused, and get into trouble because they've done so. But Posner thinks that if writer A, for example, plagiarizes from writer B, it is not B who is damaged (if anyone is), but writers C, D, and E, who have refrained from plagiarism.

"You don't have to replace the book," says Posner, using "book" as a grossly ham-handed metaphor for what has been stolen from the rightful owner. Indeed, not only need the victim not replace what has been taken from her, she will usually be unable to replace it. For one thing, it is usually only by chance, and in exceptional cases, that the victim of plagiarism learns of her victimization; and in those few cases where she does learn of it, there will usually be little she can do about it. The law -- especially in Judge Posner's court -- offers little remedy to a plaintiff in a plagiarism case, but generates lawyer's fees, and consumes time and energy, without end. One of Posner's reasons for trivializing the act of plagiarism seems to be that the law takes no great interest in it -- and to a lawyer, where there's no legal remedy, there's no crime; if there's no cure for a disease, the disease must be unimportant or imaginary.

The doctrine implied by Posner's point that since the victim of plagiarism has suffered no material loss -- she doesn't have to replace the book from which material was taken without her knowledge, let alone permission -- she has not really been harmed, is a curious one. I wonder if it applies to a woman who is raped while unconscious, and learns about it only by chance, long afterward? She too has suffered no material loss, and assuming that she was not impregnated by the rape, nor infected with a disease, nor physically injured in any way, what kind of case has she in Posner's court? (I'm aware that Posner's is an appellate court, and that he would hardly be presiding over a rape case; maybe his remoteness from substantive criminal trials is part of his problem in dealing with such matters.) If material loss is the criterion, what grounds has she for seeking a legal remedy?

This analogy, sound up to this point, fails in one important respect: rape is a recognized crime on which there is a large body of legislation and case law, so its victims are not likely to be fobbed off with "You don't have to replace your virginity," or remarks along those lines -- but it can still provide some illumination. Posner differentiates between the crime of theft and more nebulous offenses, like plagiarism, by pointing out that the former deprives the victim of something of value -- a car, for example -- whereas the latter deprives the victim of nothing -- nothing material, at least. It is hard to see, on this basis, why rape, another offense that leaves its victim apparently deprived of nothing, should be taken so seriously. We have long since learned, however, to see the rape victim as someone who has suffered a serious wrong; we think that her dignity and autonomy are important, and that the rapist, even if he has done her no other harm than to diminish them, has committed a felony.

Just so the plagiarist damages his victim; deprives her of credit for her work and of the gains in reputation that she would have made if she were recognized as the rightful author -- in general, deprives her of the fruits of her labor. I do not mean to suggest that the injury she suffers is as great as that suffered by the rape victim, or that plagiarism should be made a felony; I suggest simply that the two are of the same pattern, as a tiger and a house cat are of the same pattern, though substantially different in magnitude. And if our pet cat claws the furniture, brings in dead birds, and thinks outside the box, we take measures to correct him -- nothing like the measures we would take if a tiger were loose in the neighborhood, but measures nevertheless.

Posner (N): Paradise Lost plagiarizes the book of Genesis in the Old Testament. ... My Fair Lady plagiarized Shaw's play Pygmalion. ... Woody Allen's movie Play It Again, Sam "quotes" a famous scene from Casablanca. ... Many of these "plagiarisms" were authorized, and perhaps none was deceptive. ... But what they show is that copying with variations is an important form of creativity, and this should make us prudent and measured in our condemnations of plagiarism.

Comment: I foresee having a problem here in getting the reader to believe that Posner really said the things in the preceding passage, and meant them seriously. I can only urge the skeptical reader to turn to Posner's essay to see if I've quoted him out of context or otherwise misrepresented him. And neither in this essay nor in any of his other published writings, most of them polemical and sharp-tongued, is there the slightest sign of humor or teasing. If Posner is pulling legs, he has certainly succeeded in pulling mine.

In this passage, Posner simply redefines plagiarism to mean such things as:

  • The construction of a work of art (Paradise Lost) based on material in the public domain (the Old Testament) by a writer (John Milton) who, so far from wanting his readers to remain ignorant of the connection between his work and the earlier material, totally depends on the reader's recognition of that relationship, and would be horrified and despondent if he thought his readers failed to see it.
  • The construction of a work of art (My Fair Lady) on the basis of another one (Shaw's Pygmalion), with payment of a fee to the earlier author or his estate, and with the fullest public acknowledgment -- indeed, with boasting -- of that relationship.
  • The construction of a scene or passage in some literary or theatrical work (the Casablanca allusion in Play It Again, Sam) that depends for its effect on the audience's awareness of its relationship to an earlier one, and has no point without it.

If these examples given by Posner of the use by one artist of material originated by another were indeed cases of plagiarism, then plagiarism would not be even the most venial of offenses, it would be one of the crowning glories of human imagination and creativity. But a material element of what we commonly call
plagiarism is missing from these examples: the claim, explicit or implicit, by the later artist to be the originator of the material he is adapting or alluding to. If we are to overlook that weakness in Posner's case, we may also want to overlook the comparable weaknesses in the cases for the propositions that 2 + 2 = 5, up is down, and night is day. But let us be fair: Posner does allow, rather handsomely, that "perhaps" no deception was intended. And he does put quotation marks around plagiarism in the passage in question, showing that he is at least dimly aware that the examples he has given are simply irrelevant. Why, despite his uneasy suspicion that they were irrelevant, he nonetheless built his whole case on them, is something that I hope Posner will explain to us one day. Until he does, I conjecture that the reason is that lawyers are trained to play whatever cards they hold, however poor, as if they were trumps.

Posner suspects that complaints about plagiarism are not always wholly altruistic and disinterested, saying (N):
But I think the zeal to punish plagiarism reflects less a concern with the real injuries that it occasionally inflicts than with a desire on the part of leaders of professional communities, such as journalists and historians, to enhance their profession's reputation.
If Posner is right, think of the shame of it! Imagine people so degraded and benighted as to want to protect their profession's reputation for integrity! And while we are facing brutal truths, we may want to consider that perhaps some oppose murder on no better grounds than that they don't want to be killed -- a thought that calls the whole criminal justice system into question; how can we be sure that any of our laws are not tainted by the ignoble motive of self-protection?

Posner's defense of plagiarism consists of assembling a list of artistic adaptations, homages, and allusions; calling them examples of plagiarism; and then claiming that these examples show that plagiarism can be pretty wonderful sometimes. Allowed this form of argumentation, I will gladly undertake to prove any proposition you name; even more exciting, I can see myself making a fortune representing clients in appellate proceedings, at least in one appellate court I know of.

Postscript: Giving My Targets a Chance to Talk Back

The editor of The Vocabula Review and I have agreed that people whose work I have attacked in a "Critical Reader" column should be sent a copy of the column, and should be invited to submit a response for possible publication in TVR. We have tried to make the new policy effective retroactively so far as possible: we have sent copies of the appropriate columns to Simon Winchester, David Foster Wallace, Louis Menand, Richard Rorty, Judith Kipper, Peter Trudgill, Stanley Fish, and Donald Kennedy, as well as to Judge Richard A. Posner, whose work is the subject of my current column.

We have had two responses so far: the first, from Professor Peter Trudgill, appears in this issue of TVR. He deserves much credit, I think, for honorably, if somewhat confusedly, attempting to meet at least some of my arguments. I will have a response to him in the next issue of TVR.

The second response is from Judge Posner, who writes of the essay you have just read, "I have no desire to respond to this intemperate piece." Being a judge, Mr. Posner naturally uses highly technical legalistic phraseology that will be obscure to the layman, so I will undertake to translate his statement into plain English: "This guy has me nailed, and left me looking silly. I guess I'll have to fall back on some variant of the old 'I refuse to dignify this vicious attack by commenting on it'; it's weak, but what else can I do -- I can't just admit I wrote something foolish, can I?"

I hope that other targets of my criticism will not similarly attempt to stand on their dignity -- always a precarious perch -- but will step into the arena with me and defend themselves, giving as good as they got. But I'm not optimistic; not many of the people I've criticized will want to cross swords with someone who fights as dirty as I do. My method, shamefully, is to identify that side of an issue on which the truth lies, and then argue for that side only. This gives me an unfair advantage over my adversaries, which they naturally resent and refuse to accept. And, compounding my offense, I refuse to do the gentlemanly thing by making errors in logic, fact, or diction that can be used against me -- altogether, a sordid spectacle, and one that makes it clear that if my challenges are declined, I have no one but myself to blame.

Mark Halpern

Mark Halpern is a freelance editor and writer living in Oakland, California. He has contributed to The Atlantic Monthly and The American Scholar. His website is Rules-of-the-Game.com.

UPDATE (5/5/05)

G.D. Holcomb, a graduate of the very prestigious Michigan Law School, has e-mailed us with a strong endorsement of Mr. Halpern's analysis. He has kindly authorized us to include both his name and his e-mail address . Here is his e-mail:

From : G.D. Holcomb [e-mail originally included in this post, but deleted 8/29/06 per Mr. Holcomb's request; write us to request his e-mail if you need to contact him]
Sent : Thursday, May 5, 2005 11:30 AM
To : AuthorSkeptics (AuthorSkeptics@hotmail.com)
Subject : Mark Halpern's Posner critique

Dear Sir:

I enjoyed reading Mark Halpern's criticism of Judge Posner's views on
plagiarism, as published on AuthorSkeptics.blogspot.com. His arguments
were devastating and absolutely correct. I'm disappointed -- but not
too surprised -- that Judge Posner won't respond. I mean, what could
he possibly say? What have we come to when a well-articulated,
pull-no-punches argument can simply be dismissed as "intemperate"?
Perhaps Judge Posner needs to get out more often.

I particularly enjoy when an intelligent but pompous person makes what
he thinks is a clever and contrarian argument, only to have his dignity
doused by a cold bucket of plain-spoken common sense.

Well done, Mr. Halpern.

G.D. Holcomb
J.D., University of Michigan Law School, '85
St. Germain, WI

No comments:

Post a Comment